Employment and unemployment
Unemployment has consistently been found to have a negative impact on a range of health outcomes
Unemployment is defined as wanting but lacking paid employment, and is normally measured by whether a person is actively seeking and available for work. Unemployment has consistently been found to have a negative impact on a range of health outcomes. Reviews have found links between unemployment and self-rated health, with worse effects for men and those unemployed due to health, and ameliorated by strong social networks. There are similar relationships with mental health, including depression, anxiety and self-esteem.
After reaching record lows in 2019, the share of adults who are unemployed or underemployed is rising again because of the pandemic.
These charts explore the relationship between employment and health, as well as trends and inequalities in employment.