Job security
Job security, or confidence in the continued existence of a job or hours of work, has a significant impact on health

of the labour force are in insecure work. The number of people reporting agency work or zero-hours contracts has grown the most in recent years.
is how much the number of agency workers grew between 2011 and 2019.
of workers in Wales are in involuntary insecure employment, compared to 2.4% in London.

Job security, or confidence in the continued existence of a job or hours of work, is considered another stressor with a significant impact on health. Broader definitions include concerns about the loss of particular job functions and individuals’ capacity to resist changes. The psychological challenges posed by uncertainty have been categorised as unpredictability (lack of clarity on how to respond) and uncontrollability (powerlessness towards the threat), the latter of which is considered a key part of the transmission mechanism.

The charts in this section explore the relationship between job security and health, as well as trends and inequalities in job security.

Trends and inequalities in job security


Trends in insecure work, by contract type


In 2019, 2.3 million people were in insecure work. This level has been gradually falling since 2015.


Percentage of employees in involuntary insecure work, by region


The proportion of people in involuntary insecure work fell across all regions between 2013/14 and...


Trends in involuntary insecure work


The number of people in involuntary insecure work declined from a peak of 1.2 million in 2012 to...

Explore other subtopics within Work
Job quality
This relates to a range of factors, including pay, security, autonomy and satisfaction
Employment and unemployment
This relates to people wanting but lacking paid employment, or people in employment looking for additional hours

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